Retraction Guidelines

Grounds for dismissal

Editors ought to dismiss articles containing manipulated data, misrepresentation, plagiarism, or unethical practices. Examples include data fabrication, omission of crucial information, or intentional misinterpretation of results.

Concern expressions

If editors lack concrete misconduct proof, confidence in authors' scrutiny ability, or doubt the authority's reliability, they may issue concern expressions. This warns readers about potential publication issues.

Corrigendum issuance

Should research contain minor errors or incorrect author lists, editors must issue corrigenda. This formal correction notice attaches to the original publication.

Withdrawal or disclaimer discouragement

Editors should deter authors from withdrawing or disclaiming their work unless genuine reasons exist, such as correcting author lists or retracting false information.

Retraction notifications

When retracting, notifications must be visible, accessible, and contain retraction reasons. It must name the retracting individual and provide a detailed retraction explanation without being offensive.

Retraction purpose

Rectifying literature, improving reliability, and warning readers about untrustworthy or erroneous content are retraction's primary goals. Retractions maintain scientific record integrity and shouldn't be punitive measures.

Retraction structure

Retraction notices include the retraction reason, whether misconduct or honest error, and the retracting person's name. It should be visible in all journal versions, electronic and physical.

Retracted articles' visibility and archiving

Retracted articles should be noticeable, permanently archived, and clearly indicate their retracted status, ensuring future readers' awareness of publication issues

Major retraction causes

Plagiarism, data manipulation, unethical practices, redundant publications, and research misconduct are leading retraction causes.

Retraction responsibility

Editors hold retraction responsibility, acting promptly and decisively on evidence. If authors are uncooperative or misleading, editors may issue concern expressions until obtaining concrete proof.

Controversial authorship resolution

When multiple authors claim authorship post-publication, editors should request proof to justify changes. If provided, editors may issue corrigenda to correct author lists.

Authors' association with retracted articles

All authors should remain associated with retracted articles to maintain research reliability, even if not directly responsible for misconduct.

Legal prosecution risk

Authors might take legal action if journals fail to follow proper procedures and investigations during retractions. Adherence to transparent procedures minimizes legal dispute risks.

Retraction notice drafting

Retraction notices should be drafted carefully, avoiding offensive language, and specifying retraction causes.
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